How to Cite
Citation "styles" define the formatting of references/citations within different academic fields. The most commonly used citation styles are American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), Chicago, and Council of Science Editors (CSE/CBE). Most styles utilize either parenthetical (citations enclosed within parentheses), footnote (at the bottom of each page), or endnote (at the end of each chapter or at the very end of the work) style citations within the text. In addition, most styles utilize a reference list or works cited list at the end of the document/book with more extensive information about each source.
The three primary ways to integrate work by other authors into your own work are quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. The method you use will often depend on the goal of your assignment and the impact you want the information you are using to have, though you may use a combination of all three methods throughout your project. The following pages will detail the best practices for each method and provide useful examples to help guide your work.
If you would like to see additional explanations and examples of citations beyond what is offered in this plagiarism tutorial, please click the NCCU James E. Shepard Memorial Library Research Assistance website: